Imagine you are on a summer vacation on a sailing boat anchored at a bay in Croatia. Holiday comforts everywhere. You take a ride on a paddeboard around the boat, relax with a good book on deck or sit in a coastal konoba with a local travarica and a small macchiato.
The dinghy is tied on a rope behind the boat, as the crew sometimes go snorkeling along nearby coastal reefs. The bimini top and spray hood are pulled out to provide much needed shade and a large inflatable pink flamingo sits at the bow. Rags and towels are drying on the railings and the lines. There’s a light breeze of 5 knots (2 on the Beaufort scale), the sea is calm and the semi-transparent Althocumules slowly drift across the sky.
The sun sets, you can hear cicadas from the shore, the seagulls are flying between nearby moored vessels. It is early evening and you are looking forward to the next day, when you can some proper rest again away from your work back home. After a few hours and a glass of good port, you go to calmly to your stern cabin for a peaceful night’s sleep …
... Suddenly you're awakened by a violent jolt to the ship. You rub your eyes, trying to comprehend what's going on. Did you really feel something? The ship jolts again and leans sharply from one side to the other. You run sleepily above deck. Throughout the sky you see heavy moonlit clouds, the sea sending you foam over the deck.
The boats you see around you are tangled at their anchors or buoys and lean sharply from side to side. Through the rain your towels are flying everywhere and even your pink inflatable flamingo has flown off the bow, disappearing into the stormy sea.
The dinghy has keeled over and is on its last legs. The paddleboard is travelling down along the railings. The bimini top over the cockpit is being ripped apart in gusts of wind. Everywhere in the bay, headlights flicker from the other ships. Their crews running around the decks in a state of confusion.
Some ships sail off, others are attempting to sail. Beer cans and shards of left plates are rolling around the cockpit and cut your foot. The clouds burst open. The ship abruptly turns stern towards the shore. The deck is slippery. Visibility decreases. You turn on the radio.
On channel 16, somebody is calling for help, confused. Your crew is watching you from below deck with pupils dilated. Can the ropes hold out? Isn't it getting shallower? Why don't I have the depth gauge turned on? Where is my lifejacket? Damn, I didn't change the headlights. Is the genoa out?
Contentment has turned into drama and there is a struggle for life.
The weather situation (not only) in the Mediterranean has changed significantly in recent years. It is no longer true that the warm sea, especially the Adriatic, is one large pond where nothing can happen to you. Tropical storms with wholly unexpected progress have been lashing these formerly much quieter locations in the summer months. The second week of July this year (2019) is direct proof of this. During one week (6.-13.7.2019), more than 150 cases of vessel damage and nearly 50 Mayday calls for help were reported (according to meteo.hr data). On the night of July 8 to 9, over 36,000 lightning strikes hit the central and southern Adriatic within three hours. That's about 3 lightning flashes per second. The storm was accompanied by torrential rains, a downburst, and localized hail. In some areas (eg Dugi otok) during that time there was up to 300 mm of precipitation (in 3 hours). A large number of ships broke anchor and buoy, and many of them ended up in shallows or . Several vessels sank completely. And that's not to mention material damage on the shore. Several minor and serious injuries were documented, but according to my information, fortunately, no one in the Adriatic sea died during this storm.
From a lecture Author: Meteorology Maritime classes C and B
The situation as described above is far from unrealistic in summer. Perhaps you have found yourself in a similar scenario already but if not, you really don’t want to experience it. Not the storm so much, but the hopelessness of the overall situation on board, when you are at a loss as to what to do first.
Let us return to the beginning of this story. What can be done to minimize problems at night in the bay? From documentation on (not only) maritime accidents, it is known that the weakest link is not the failure of technology but the human factor. A small error or inconsistency with the little things can end up causing a tragedy.
18 tips to prepare for mooring in a storm and minimize problems
Those who are consistent in their own life should be twice as consistent at sea. Those who are not consistent, at least ten times more. :-) If you think you should do it on board, just do it. And immediately. This applies to both navigation and mooring. And it's really worth it.
2. Monitoring the meteorological situation
Always monitor the local meteorological conditions, even in calm weather. And do it even if you are getting continuous SMS weather updates. Most sailors like the online application Windy. I don't want to dishearten you because it's a very good app, but you need to understand a few facts. It is a predictive program, so it does not say what the current situation at sea is, but "calculates" the situation in the atmosphere. It is a global forecast that works with a certain data density, according to each prediction model. For example, the GFS model has a data density of 27 kilometres (15 nautical miles). So, logically, it cannot outline the situation in your bay, given the surrounding islands, because it simply cannot see them. Use custom analysis and local weather servers (see the links below the article).
3. Nighttime location
Choose a location for the night where the expected night wind would direct your stern away from the bay and push you towards the open sea rather than onto the cliffs. Otherwise, in strong winds at night, it would be difficult to leave the bay especially with a less powerful sailboat engines. If you are not sure that you can handle the situation in the bay, choose a safe haven.
If the ports are already full or closed and there is no suitable mooring bay nearby, sail off from the islands to the open sea. The crew will hate you, but at least you'll all survive. In the open sea, sailboats simply do not sink. It is no coincidence that the basic maritime rule is "Protect your ship from the shore, and it will protect you from the sea.
4. Expect more gusts of winds
A storm brings gusts of wind. What is a gust of wind? It is a locally amplified wind due to the orography (shape) of the terrain or due to a locally amplified pressure gradient. Sometimes predicting gusts can be done by simple observation with your own eyes, for example based on the shape of the bay or the surrounding hills. In any case, a simple empirical equation holds that a gust can increase the wind speed up to three times under certain conditions. So a forecast promising a 30-knot wind at night (56 km/h) can also bring 70-knot gusts (130 km/h).
5. Mooring at a buoy or anchoring
There has been a long-running debate amongst mariners as to whether an anchor or buoy is better and what procedures to choose. In fact, it's such a huge topic that it could take up a whole article in itself. In the case of a buoy, always tie on two ropes, each returning to the same cleat. Each year, there are several documented cases of ropes chafing and breaking away from the buoy. Always anchor the sailboat (with a chain length of at least five times the depth) at full reverse thrust (approx. 2400 rpm depending on engine type). The anchor has to hold to ensure a peaceful sleep. In Croatia, do not anchor more than ten metres deep. Use the anchor buoy when anchoring, display the circular black anchoring day shape during the day and turn on the all-round light at night.
6. Check below the surface
Don’t be lazy when anchoring or at a buoy, dive and check that everything is OK under the surface. If you can not dive to the bottom, at least take a look using goggles and snorkel from the surface. Regarding a buoy, don’t just check its lower eye, also check whether the buoy rope is not worn and is attached securely to the lower concrete block. At anchor, make sure you did not throw it into the underwater grass and check that it is fully secured to the sea bed. Do not just presume the anchor is lying on the bottom and you have enough chain.
Take out the fenders from below deck or untie them from the flat end of the stern where you are tied and then attach them to both sides of the boat. This will minimise damage in case any of the neighbouring boats break free at night.
A common mistake made by many recreational sailors is to pull the dinghy behind the boat. Likewise, in bays and marinas, you can often see boats moored at night with dinghies on the water at the stern or bow. Don’t be apathetic, always pull the boat aboard and secure it there with ropes. It is one of many things that can get revenge on you, and it can also simplify your situation. I fully understand the crews' argument that they have just returned from the pub in the evening and will set off for some fresh bread in the morning. But ... the dinghy belongs on the boat, so be consistent.
9. Loose items on deck
During a summer voyage, you’ll find yourself with many things on deck that would get in the way below deck or simply just won’t fit there. Make sure to secure them all firmly on board and in order to do this, it’s best to take along a number of short pieces of rope and bungee cords (about 1-2 metres in length). If you don't have them with you, you can find them in local stores in most marinas. Be careful when tying down the paddelboard or walkway. They should always be on the opposite side to where the genoa furling line leads to avoid collision or jamming of the line. Also tie your inflatables down (such as the aforementioned pink flamingo), store them in the hold or deflate them. Among other things, so as not to block access to the anchor well.
10. Drying linen on board
Never let anyone on the boat hang linen out to dry on free moving ropes (lifts and sheets).The sail sheets may appear perfect "lines" for hanging clothes but just imagine what a swimsuit stuck in the sheets pulley might cause. If something needs to be dried, use the ship's railing for this purpose. And take down all the laundry for the night.
11. Tidy up the cockpit and below deck
Keep your deck in order and especially the cockpit before going to bed. Wine glasses and scattered peanuts may backfire at night. The same applies to below deck. Make sure the crew check that nothing is free to roll around below deck. Since the cabins are private spaces, the crew can keep order as they see fit. The captain's table is your private space for maps and logbook, or for charging mobile phones. It certainly should not serve as an extended kitchen area, for example, to cut onions.
12. Transmitter and instruments
Leave the radio on channel 16 and the basic instruments switched on overnight. These are mainly tridata (depth and wind speed). When dealing with a drama, it frees your hands up and you won’t have to waste valuable time waiting for the devices to start up. Find out in advance how the depth gauge is set up. Whether it measures from the transducer or has a predefined offset (ie, offset to the measured depth), for example, from the lower edge of the keel. In some dramatic situations, every centimetre of depth counts.
13. Position tracking / anchor alam
Use the anchor alarm (a program that shows you the distance from the assumed anchor position). Alternatively, keep location tracking turned on (e.g. via Navionics). This is the only way to determine if your anchored ship is travelling even with the anchor in a strong wind. Tracking with your device's display (mobile or tablet) turned off uses minimal power consumption and can track your location all night long.
14. Bimini top and spray hood
At 8 on the Beaufort scale, which is a wind speed of 34 to 40 knots (62-74 km/h), a force of up to 270N is applied on each square metre of the exposed surface of the ship or any object on the ship. That is to say a force equivalent to 28 kilograms. And this doesn’t take into account any gusts of wind. In the case of a 16-metre boat at anchor or buoy in a side wind, it is equivalent to about one tonne of force. Therefore, if the forecast is poor, always fold down the bimini top (which primarily serves as sun protection) in time. It can get torn and unnecessarily increases your wind resistance. Keep the spray hood up as it is relatively aerodynamic and better reinforced. It also serves as a good protection against water spray.
15. Overloaded genoa
Check that the genoa is fully in and that you have at least two turns on the sheets. In the Adriatic Sea, you can often see sailboats in harbours that have the aesthetically pleasing triangle of the genoa above the bow, with slack sheets running from it. The tip of this sail can cause quite serious problems in strong winds. Aside from the fact that it is another area on which the wind catches, the wind can unexpectedly pull the entire sail out when the roller furling line is unsecured.
16. Night patrols
If required, divide up the night watch on board. As captains, save yourself and make sure you are completely fresh and ready to intervene when needed.
17. Keep a clear head
Bear in mind that alcohol can significantly distort your judgement. Alcohol on board is a big topic, especially among Czech sailors, but we don't have time here to delve into it in more detail.
18. Final advice - don't panic
Behave in a calm and balanced way in even the most dramatic of situations. Running around in confusion on deck can lead to unpleasant injuries. In extreme situations, the crew will be fully dependent on you and can read your facial expressions. Therefore it is best to employ a “poker face”. Never let it be known that you don’t know what to do in a situation. It will unsettle your crew which, in turn, will unnerve you even more. If you look composed, they won't panic. Otherwise, they might prefer to voluntarily jump into the stormy sea just to ease their suffering. :-)
Preparing for a stormy night is a big topic. Follow the above recommendations automatically, they’ll bring you a more peaceful sleep and make it easier to deal with a drama. And remember, as us Czechs say: "The dragon (storm) never sleeps".
What else may come in handy?
Here are some meteorological links with a local forecast. In our experience, using them really pays off.
Author: Pavel Kocych